With ever -increasing population of the world,
enhancement of food production is a major necessity.
Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry and
plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to increase
food production. Several new techniques like embryo
transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are going
to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food production.
9.1 ANIMAL HUSBANDRY
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breeding
and raising livestock. As such it is a vital skill for farmers
and is as much science as it is art. Animal husbandry
deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffaloes,
cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc., that
are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poultry
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catching,
selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustaceans
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals like
bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products
like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, etc.
It is estimated that more then 70 per cent of the world
livestock population is in India and China. However, it is
CHAPTER 9
STRATEGIES FOR ENHANCEMENT
IN FOOD PRODUCTION
9.1 Animal Husbandry
9.2 Plant Breeding
9.3 Single Cell Proteins
9.4 Tissue Culture
2015-16
ld,
ity.
and
ase
ryo
ing
ion.
mers
ndry
loes,
that
try
ng,
ans
like
bees, silk-worm, prawns, crabs, fishes, birds, pigs, cattle,
sheep and camels have been used by humans for products
like milk, eggs, meat, wool, silk, honey, et
c.
It is estimated that more then 70
pe
r cent of the world
livestock population is in India
and China. However
, it is
9.
1
9.2
9.3
9.4
2015-1
6
W
it
h ever
-incr
easing population of the wor
ld
enhancement of food production is a major necess
it
Biological principles as applied to animal husbandry
a
plant breeding have a major role in our efforts to incre
as
food production. Several new techniques like emb
ry
transfer technology and tissue culture techniques are go
in
to play a pivotal role in further enhancing food product
io
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
.
.
.
.
.
.
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
A
A
A
A
A
A
A
NIMAL
AA
H
L
USBANDRY
Animal husbandry is the agricultural practice of breed
in
and raisin
g
livestock. As such it is a vital skill for far
me
and is as much science as it is art. Animal husba
nd
deals with the care and breeding of livestock like buffa
lo
cows, pigs, horses, cattle, sheep, camels, goats, etc.,
th
are useful to humans. Extended, it includes poul
tr
farming and fisheries. Fisheries include rearing, catchi
ng
selling, etc., of fish, molluscs (shell-fish) and crustace
an
(prawns, crabs, etc.). Since time immemorial, animals
li
1
Animal Husbandry
2
Plant Breeding
3
Single Cell Proteins
4
T
issue Cultur
e
ur
ur
166
BIOLOGY
surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only
25 per cent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in addition
to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologies
also have to be applied to achieve improvement in quality and productivity.
9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals
A professional approach to what have been traditional practices of farm
management gives the much needed boost to our food production. Let us
discuss some of the management procedures, employed in various animal
farm systems.
9.1.1.1 Dairy Farm Management
Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its products for
human consumption. Can you list the animals that you would expect
to find in a dairy? What are different kinds of products that can be
made with milk from a dairy farm? In dairy farm management, we deal
with processes and systems that increase yield and improve quality of
milk. Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds in the
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (under the
climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to diseases is
very important. For the yield potential to be realised the cattle have to be
well looked after they have to be housed well, should have adequate
water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle should be
carried out in a scientific manner with special emphasis on the quality
and quantity of fodder. Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygiene (both
of the cattle and the handlers) are of paramount importance while milking,
storage and transport of the milk and its products. Nowadays, of course,
much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces chance
of direct contact of the produce with the handler. Ensuring these stringent
measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper record
keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems as early
as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be mandatory.
You would probably find it interesting if you were to prepare a
questionnaire on diverse aspects of dairy keeping and then follow it up with
a visit to a dairy farm in your locality and seek answers to the questions.
9.1.1.2 Poultry Farm Management
Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or for their
eggs. They typically include chicken and ducks, and sometimes turkey and
geese. The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of only these birds,
but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
As in dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds,
proper and safe farm conditions, proper feed and water, and hygiene and
health care are important components of poultry farm management.
2015-16
11
BIOLOGY
surprising to note that the contribution to the world farm produce is only
25 per cent, i.e., the productivity per unit is very low. Hence, in additi
on
to conventional practices of animal breeding and care, newer technologie
s
also have to be
ap
pl
ied to achieve i
mp
rovement in
qu
alit
y
and
pr
oductivi
ty
.
9.1.1 Management of Farms and Farm Animals
A
pr
ofessional a
pp
roach to what have been traditional
pr
actices of far
m
management gives the much needed boost to our food production. Let u
s
anima
l
cts for
expect
can be
we dea
l
uality of
in t
he
nder t
he
ases i
s
ve to
be
dequat
e
ould b
e
quality
e (bot
h
milkin
g,
course,
chan
ce
tringent
recor
d
s early
datory.
epar
e a
up wi
th
ions.
or their
ke
y
an
d
geese. The word poultry is often used to refer to the meat of
on
ly
these birds,
but in a more general sense it may refer to the meat of other birds too.
As in dairy farming, selection of disease free and suitable breeds,
pr
op
er and safe far
m conditions,
pr
op
er feed and wate
r
, and
hy
gi
ene an
d
health care are im
po
rtant co
mp
onents of
po
ultr
y
farm man
ag
ement.
2015-1
6
116666
discuss some of the management procedures, employed in various
a
farm systems.
9.1.1.1 Dairy Far
m Management
Dairying is the management of animals for milk and its produ
ct
human consumption.
Can you list the animals that you would
to
f
ind in a dai
ry
? What are d
if
fe
rent kinds o
f
pr
oducts that
ca
made with milk fr
om a dairy far
r
r
m?
In dair
y
far
m mana
ge
ment,
we
with processes and systems that increase yield and improve q
ua
milk. Milk yield is primarily dependent on the quality of breeds
farm. Selection of good breeds having high yielding potential (u
nd
climatic conditions of the area), combined with resistance to dise
as
ve
ry
i
mp
ortant. For the
yi
eld
po
tential to be realised the cattle ha
ve
well looked after they have to be housed well, should have a
de
water and be maintained disease free. The feeding of cattle sh
ou
carried out in a scientific manner with special emphasis on the
qu
and quantity of fodd
er
. Besides, stringent cleanliness and hygien
e
of the cattle and the handlers) are of
p
aramount i
mp
ortance while
mi
storage and transport of the milk and its products. Nowadays, of
c
much of these processes have become mechanised, which reduces
ch
of dir
ect contact of the pr
oduce with the handler
. Ensuring these s
tr
er
er
measures would of course, require regular inspections, with proper
keeping. It would also help to identify and rectify the problems a
s
as possible. Regular visits by a veterinary doctor would be man
da
Y
ou would pr
YY
obably find it inter
esting if you wer
e to pr
ep
questionnaire on diverse aspects of dairy keeping and then follow it
u
a visit to a dairy farm in your locality and seek answers to the quest
io
9.1.1.2 Poultry Far
m Management
Poultry is the class of domesticated fowl (birds) used for food or f
or
eg
gs
. The
y
ty
pi
call
y
include chicken and ducks, and sometimes tur
ke